Definitions in OBG

1. ABO incompatibility is a reaction of the immune system that occurs if different and not compatible blood types are mixed together.
2. Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by the removal or expulsion of a fetus or embryo from the uterus, resulting in or caused by its death.
3. "septic abortion" refers to a spontaneous miscarriage or therapeutic/artificial abortion complicated by a pelvic infection
4. “inevitable/threatened abortion” ie a miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy. (Pregnancy losses after the 20th week are called preterm deliveries.) A miscarriage may also be called a "spontaneous abortion."
5. A missed abortion is when the embryo or fetus has died, but a miscarriage has not yet occurred. It is also referred to as delayed or missed miscarriage.
6. Therapeutic abortion is a type of induced abortion that is used to preserve the life and wellbeing of the mother or reduce complications that result from multiple pregnancies.
7. Habitual abortion, recurrent miscarriage or recurrent loss (RPL) is the occurrence of three or more pregnancies that end in miscarriage of the fetus usually before 20 weeks of gestation
8. Placenta abruptio is separation of the placenta (the organ that nourishes the fetus) from the site of uterine implantation before delivery of the fetus.

9. Adenomyosis is uterine thickening that occurs when endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, moves into the outer muscular walls of the uterus. Symptoms: Long-term or heavy menstrual bleeding; Painful menstruation

10. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, α-fetoprotein; also sometimes called alpha-1-fetoprotein or alpha-fetoglobulin) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AFP gene
This gene encodes alpha-fetoprotein, a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. The protein is thought to be the fetal counterpart of serum albumin,
11. Primary amenorrhoea (menstruation cycles never starting) may be caused by developmental problems such as the congenital absence of the uterus, or failure of the ovary to receive or maintain egg cells. Also, delay in pubertal development will lead to primary amenorrhoea. It is defined as an absence of secondary sexual characteristics by age 14 with no menarche or normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche by 16 years of age.
12. Secondary amenorrhoea (menstruation cycles ceasing) is often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland from premature menopause or intrauterine scar formation. It is defined as the absence of menses for three months in a woman with previously normal menstruation or nine months for women with a history of oligomenorrhoea
13. Amniocentesis is a prenatal diagnostic test performed at around 16 weeks of pregnancy. It is used to test for chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome. It involves passing a needle through the skin of the mother, through the wall of the uterus (womb) and taking a small sample (around 16mls) of the fluid surrounding the developing baby. The needle does not touch the baby or the placenta.
14. An artificial rupture of membranes (ARM), also known as an amniotomy, may be performed by a midwife or obstetrician. This is usually performed using an amnihook or fingercot. It is intended to induce or accelerate labour.
15. Colporrhaphy is the surgical repair of a defect in the vaginal wall, including a cystocele (when the bladder protrudes into the vagina) and a rectocele (when the rectum protrudes into the vagina).
An anterior colporrhaphy treats a cystocele or urethrocele, while a posterior colporrhaphy treats a rectocele.
16. antepartum haemorrhage (APH), also prepartum hemorrhage, is bleeding from the vagina during pregnancyfrom the 24th(22 weeks in malaysia.) week (sometimes defined as from the 20th week) gestational age to term.
17. uterine anteversion, a position of the uterus in which the body of the uterus is directed ventrally. Mild degrees of anteversion are of no significance. On speculum examination of the vagina, acute anteversion of the uterus may be deduced from the location of the cervix in the posterior of the vaginal vault. Slight anteversion is the most common position of the uterus; …
18. The Arias-Stella reaction, as discovered by Javier, found that a reaction previously thought of as cancer that occurred in the endometrium was actually normal reactions of hormones from placental tissue. It can also refer to changes occurring in the cervix
19. Asherman's syndrome (AS), also called "uterine synechiae" or intrauterine adhesions (IUA), presents a condition characterized by the presence of adhesions and/or fibrosis within the uterine cavity due to scars. A number of other terms have been used to describe the condition and related conditions including: traumatic intrauterine adhesions, uterine/cervical atresia, traumatic uterine atrophy, sclerotic endometrium, endometrial sclerosis. In this article AS and IUA are used interchangeably.
20. asynclitism - the presentation during labor of the head of the fetus at an abnormal angle
21. Uterine atony is a loss of tone in the uterine musculature. Normally, contraction of the uterine muscle compresses the vessels and reduces flow. This increases the likelihood of coagulation and prevents bleeds. Thus, lack of uterine muscle contraction can cause an acute hemorrhage. Clinically, 75-80% of postpartum hemorrhages are due to uterine atony.
22. Atrophic vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina due to thinning tissue and decreased lubrication. It is related to reduced estrogen levels.
23. The fetal attitude describes the relationship of the fetus' body parts to one another. The normal fetal attitude is commonly referred to as the fetal position. The head is tucked down to the chest, with arms and legs drawn in towards the center of the chest. Abnormal fetal attitudes may include a head that is extended back or other body parts extended or positioned behind the back. Abnormal fetal attitudes can increase the diameter of the presenting part as it passes through the pelvis, increasing the difficulty of birth.
24. bacteriuria denotes the presence of bacteria in urine not due to contamination from urine sample collection.

Urine is normally a sterile bodily fluid, not containing bacteria. Bacteria e urine, especially gram-negative rods, usually indicate a urinary tract infection (either cystitis or pyelonephritis), although bacteriuria can also occur in prostatitis. Escherichia coli is the most common bacterium isolated from urine samples.
25. The Bartholin's glands (also called Bartholin glands or greater vestibular glands) are two glands located slightly below and to the left and right of the opening of the vagina. They secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina and are homologous to bulbourethral glands in males. However, while Bartholin's glands are located in the superficial perineal pouch in females, bulbourethral glands are located in the deep perineal pouch in males.


Marsupialization is the surgical technique of cutting a slit into a cyst and the edges of the slit to form a continuous surface from the exterior to the interior of the cyst. Sutured in this fashion, the cyst remains open and can drain freely. This technique is used to treat a cyst when a single draining would not be effective and complete removal of the surrounding structure would not be desirable.
Marsupialization of the Bartholin's gland is generally indicated when there is a large abscess that makes surgical excision of the gland difficult. In this operation, the surgeon opens wide the wall of the abscess and allows the purulent exudate to drain. The membrane of the abscess is then sutured to the vaginal mucosa and to the skin of the introitus in order to effect granulation and reepithelialization of the wound from the bottom of the abscess to the top.
26. bearing down complex is the forceful contraction of the abdominal muscles and during the second stage of labor, either as a reflex or as a conscious effort.
27. billings method of birth control. Natural Fertility Regulation. The Billings Ovulation Method (BOM) is a method which women use to monitor their fertility, by identifying when they are fertile and when they are infertile during each menstrual cycle. Users pay attention to the sensation at their vulva, and the appearance of any vaginal discharge. This information can be used to achieve or avoid pregnancy during regular or irregular cycles, breastfeeding, and peri-menopause.
28. Bimanual compression of the uterus prevents an increase in the radius of the uterus due to bleeding in the uterus and atony. Simultaneously, the uterus is pushed cephalad, which puts the uterine arteries under tension and reduces blood flow to the uterus. Catheterise bladder.
29. biparietal diameter (BPD),
the transverse distance between the protuberances of the two parietal bones of the skull.
30. Brandt-Andrews manoeuvre
The expression of the placenta by grasping the umbilical cord with one hand and placing the other hand on the abdomen, with the fingers over the anterior surface of the uterus at the junction of the lower uterine segment and the corpus uteri.
31. Complete breech - the baby's hips and knees are flexed so that the baby is sitting crosslegged, with feet beside the bottom.

32. Footling breech - one or both feet come first, with the bottom at a higher position. This is rare at term but relatively common with premature fetuses.
33. Frank breech - the baby's bottom comes first, and his or her legs are flexed at the hip and extended at the knees (with feet near the ears). 65-70% of breech babies are in the frank breech position.
34. The bregma is the anatomical point on the skull at which the coronal suture is intersected perpendicularly by the sagittal suture

35. The classical Caesarean section involves a midline longitudinal incision which allows a larger space to deliver the baby. However, it is rarely performed today as it is more prone to complications.
36. The lower uterine segment section is the procedure most commonly used today; it involves a transverse cut just above the edge of the bladder and results in less blood loss and is easier to repair.
37. Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any of the Candida species (all yeasts), of which Candida albicans is the most common.
38. Caput succedaneum is swelling of the scalp in a newborn. It is most often brought on by pressure from the uterus or vaginal wall during a head-first (vertex) delivery. No treatment is necessary, and it usually heals spontaneously within a few days.
39. The cardinal ligament (or Mackenrodt's ligament, lateral cervical , or transverse cervical ligament) is a major ligament of the uterus. It is located at the base of the broad ligament of the uterus. Importantly, it contains the uterine artery and uterine vein. There is a pair of cardinal ligaments in the female human body.
40. cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of recording (-graphy) the fetal heartbeat (cardio-) and the uterine contractions (-toco-) during pregnancy typically in the third trimester.
41. caruncle /car·un·cle/ (kar´ung-k'l) a small fleshy eminence, often abnormal. urethral caruncle a polypoid, deep red growth on the mucous membrane of the urinary meatus in women.
42. cephalhematoma (American English) or cephalhaematoma (British English) is a hemorrhage of blood between the skull and the periosteum of a newborn baby secondary to rupture of blood vessels crossing the periosteum. Because the swelling is subperiosteal its boundaries are limited by the individual bones, in contrast to a chignon. The usual causes of a cephalhematoma are a prolonged second stage of labor or instrumental delivery, particularly ventouse.
43. Bishop score, also Bishop's score, is a pre-labour scoring system to assist in predicting whether induction of labour will be required.[1] It has also been used to assess the odds of spontaneous preterm delivery.[2]
The total score is achieved by assessing the following five components on vaginal examination:
  • Cervical dilation
  • Cervical effacement
  • Cervical consistency
  • Cervical position
  • Fetal station
44. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), also known as cervical dysplasia and cervical interstitial neoplasia, is the potentially premalignant transformation and abnormal growth (dysplasia) of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix.[1] CIN is not cancer, and is usually curable.[2] Most cases of CIN remain stable, or are eliminated by the host's immune system without intervention. However a small percentage of cases progress to become cervical cancer, usually cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), if left untreated.[3]
45. Chloasma
Some pregnant women develop dark irregular patches on their face most commonly on the upper cheek, nose, lips, and forehead. This is called chloasma. (It is sometimes called melasma or the 'mask of pregnancy'.)
Chloasma is thought to be due to stimulation of pigment-producing cells by female sex hormones so that they produce more melanin pigments (dark coloured pigments) when the skin is exposed to sun. Some women develop these patches when they take oral contraceptives (the pill).
46. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a form of prenatal diagnosis to determine chromosomal or genetic disorders in the fetus. It entails getting a sample of the chorionic villus (placental tissue) and testing it. CVS usually takes place 10–12 weeks after the last period, earlier than amniocentesis (which is carried out as early as 14–16 weeks).[citation needed] It is the preferred technique before 15 weeks.[1] Studies show that the risk of miscarriage following CVS is comparable to the rate following amniocentesis – between 0.5% and 4.6%.[5] Apart from a risk of miscarriage, there is a risk of infection and amniotic fluid leakage.

47. climacteric is most often a synonym for female menopause
48. Cervical cerclage (tracheloplasty), also known as a cervical stitch, is used for the treatment of cervical incompetence (or insufficiency), [1] a condition where the cervix has become slightly open and there is a risk of miscarriage because it may not remain closed throughout pregnancy. Usually this treatment would be done for a woman who had suffered one or more miscarriages in the past, in the second trimester of pregnancy.
The treatment consists of a strong suture being inserted into and def9.jpgthe cervix early in the pregnancy, usually between weeks 12 to 14, and then removed towards the end of the pregnancy when the greatest risk of miscarriage has passed.
49. Colostrum (also known colloquially as beestings,[1] bisnings[2] or first milk) is a form of milk produced by the mammary glands of mammals in late pregnancy. Most species will generate colostrum just prior to giving birth. Colostrum contains antibodies to protect the newborn against disease, as well as being lower in fat[3] and higher in protein than ordinary milk.
50. Colpoperineorrhaphy- suture of the ruptured vagina and perineum.
51. Colposcopy is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva.[1] Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions in these areas have discernible characteristics which can be detected through the examination
52. Colposuspension- a surgical procedure used in the treatment of urinary incontinence caused by urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence. The procedure aims to move an intrapelvic bladder neck to an intra-abdominal position. Called also vaginal advancement. The surgeon places stabilizing stitches in o the neck of the bladder and attaches it to the back of the pelvis. These stitches are enough to stabilize the urinary bladder in position and control the urinary incontinence.

53. compound presentation prolapse of a limb of the fetus alongside the head in a cephalic presentation or of one or both arms in a breech presentation.
55. A cone biopsy is a surgical procedure in which a cone-shaped tissue sample from the cervix is removed for examination. Also called cervical conization, a cone biopsy is done to diagnose cervical cancer or to remove cancerous or precancerous tissue.

56. diagonal conjugate- a radiographic measurement of the distance from the border of the symphysis pubis to the sacral promontory. The measurement, which averages around 12.5 to 13.0 cm in adult women, may also be determined by vaginal examination. measured manually per vagina or by ultrasonography. It is used to extrapolate the true conjugate.
57. obstetric conjugate n. The shortest pelvic diameter through which the fetal head must pass during birth, measured from the promontory of the sacrum to a point a few millimeters from the top of the pubic symphysis.

58. contracted pelvis one showing a decrease of 1.5 to 2 cm in any important diameter; when all dimensions are proportionately diminished it is a generally contracted p. (p. justo minor).
59. Controlled cord traction involves traction on the umbilical cord, combined with counterpressure upwards on the uterine body by a hand placed immediately above the symphysis pubis. CCT is used on conjunction with drugs that speed up the seperation process i.e. syntometrine.
60. Coombs test (also known as Coombs' test, antiglobulin test or AGT) refers to two clinical blood tests used in immunohematology and immunology. The two Coombs tests are the direct Coombs test (also known as direct antiglobulin test or DAT), and the indirect Coombs test (also known as indirect antiglobulin test or IAT).
The more commonly used test, the Direct Coombs test, is used to test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
The indirect Coombs test is used in prenatal testing of pregnant women, and in testing blood prior to a blood transfusion. It detects antibodies against RBCs that are present unbound in the patient's serum. In this case, serum is extracted from the blood, and the serum is incubated with RBCs of known antigenicity. If agglutination occurs, the indirect Coombs test is positive.[1]

61. 61. Cord Presentation and Prolapse
In both conditions a loop of the cord is below the presenting part. The difference is in the condition of the membranes; if intact it is cord presentation and if ruptured it is cord prolapse.
62 Crowning- During pushing and delivery, your baby's head will begin to make an appearance through your vaginal opening with each contraction. When your baby's head remains visible and does not slip back in, it is known as crowning.
63. Curettage, in medical procedures, is the use of a curette to remove tissue by scraping or scooping. Curettage is also a declining method of abortion. It has been replaced by vacuum aspiration over the last decade.
64. Cystocele (pronounced /ˈsɪstəsiːl/ //SIS-t////ə////-seel//) is a medical condition that occurs when the tough fibrous wall between a woman's bladder and her vagina (the pubocervical fascia) is torn by childbirth, allowing the bladder to herniate into the vagina. Urethroceles often occur with cystoceles.


65. A decidual reaction can be observed in tissue of the peritoneum and ovary during a pregnancy, and represents a response of stromal tissue to progesterone. Decidua is the term for the uterine lining (endometrium) during a pregnancy, which forms the maternal part of the placenta. It is formed under the influence of progesterone and forms highly-characteristic cells.
66. Deep Transverse Arrest
A condition of vaginal delivery that occurs when the fetal head fails to rotate despite steady descent. This is common in oversized babies and women that have a flat pelvis.

67. Deflexion- bending or refraction
68. Dermoid cyst- A dermoid cyst is a cystic teratoma that contains developmentally mature skin complete with hair follicles and sweat glands, sometimes clumps of long hair, and often pockets of sebum, blood, fat, bone, nails, teeth, eyes, cartilage, and thyroid tissue.
69. Descent of presenting part
70. Gestational diabetes (or gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM) is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy (especially during third trimester of pregnancy).
71. Diagnosis-related group (DRG) is a system to classify hospital cases into one of approximately 500 groups, also referred to as DRGs, expected to have similar hospital resource use, developed for Medicare as part of the prospective payment system.
72. diameters of fetal head
73. diameters of the pelvis
pelvic diameter any diameter of the pelvis, such as diagonal conjugate, joining the posterior surface of the pubis to the tip of the sacral promontory; external conjugate, joining the depression under the last lumbar spine to the upper margin of the pubis; true (internal) conjugate, the anteroposterior diameter of the pelvic inlet, measured from the upper margin of the pubic symphysis to the sacrovertebral angle; oblique, joining one sacroiliac articulation to the iliopubic eminence of the other side; transverse (of inlet), joining the two most widely separated points of the pelvic inlet; transverse (of outlet), joining the medial surfaces of the ischial tuberosities.
74. Dublin method of placental delivery
75. Dysmenorrhea (or dysmenorrhoea) is a gynecological medical condition of pain during menstruation that interferes with daily activities,
76. Eclampsia- an acute and life-threatening complication of pregnancy, is characterized by the appearance of tonic-clonic seizures, usually in a patient who had developed pre-eclampsia. Eclampsia includes seizures and coma that happen during pregnancy but are not due to preexisting or organic brain disorders.
77. ectocervix- The portion of the uterine cervix extending into the vagina and lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
78. Ectopic pregnancy refers to a pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, most
commonly in one of the fallopian tubes
79. Ectropion is an abnormal eversion (outward turning) of the lid margin away from the globe.
80. Effacement of cervix- is its shortening, or thinning, of a tissue.
81. endocervix- the mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix uteri. the region of the opening of the cervix into the uterine cavity.
82. Endometrial ablation is a medical procedure that is used to remove (ablate) or destroy the endometrial lining of a woman's uterus. This technique is most often employed for women who suffer from excessive or prolonged bleeding during their menstrual cycle but can not or do not wish to undergo a hysterectomy.
83. Endometriosis is the growth of endometrial cells (from the lining of the uterus)
outside the uterus.
84. Endometritis is caused by infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, tuberculosis,
or mixtures of normal vaginal bacteria.
85. engagement /en·gage·ment/ (en-gāj´mint) the entrance of the fetal head or
presenting part into the superior pelvic strait.
86. Enterocele is a hernia of the lining of the peritoneal cavity with or without
abdominal viscera.
87. epidural analgesia, a form of regional analgesia involving injection of drugs through a catheter placed into the epidural space, the space inside the bony spinal canal but outside the membrane called the dura mater (sometimes called the "dura").
88. An episiotomy (pronounced /ɛˌpiːziːˈɒtəmiː/), also known as Perineotomy is a surgically planned incision on the perinium and the posterior vaginal wall during second stage of labour.
89. External cephalic version (ECV) 90 Fibromyoma ??
90. Filshie Clip is a small, hinged titanium clip lined with a soft silastic rubber. Tubal Ligation with the Filshie Clip is a permanent method of birth control. The Filshie Clip occludes the fallopian tube preventing eggs to travel from the ovaries to the uterus where they can become fertilized by sperm. The eggs are simply reabsorbed by the body.
91. High forceps delivery would be a forceps-assisted vaginal delivery performed
when the baby's head is not yet engaged.
Mid forceps- engagement has taken place and the leading part of the head is the level of the ischial spines.

Low forceps- The fetal head has reached the perineal floor and is visible at the vulva.

Kielland’s forceps
Neville- Barnes forceps
Laufe and Wrigleys forceps
Trial of forceps

92. Fourchette- the fold of skin that forms the posterior margin of the vulva.
93. forewaters /fore·wa·ters/ (-waw-terz) the part of the amniotic sac that pouches
into the uterine cervix in front of the presenting part of the fetus.
94. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) is a tool of assisted reproductive technology against infertility. Eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries, and placed in one of the Fallopian tubes, along with the man's sperm.
95. Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultatively anaerobic gram-variable rod. It has been demonstrated to cause a wide variety of infections; however, it is most commonly recognized for its role as one of the organisms responsible for bacterial vaginosis
96. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a rare tumour in women of childbearing age.[1] [2] GTD is a unique disease, because here, gestational cells grow into a tumour
97. grand multiparity- the fact of having given birth to more than four children
98. gravidity refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant.
99. Guthrie test, also known as the Guthrie bacterial inhibition assay, is a
medical test performed on newborn infants to detect phenylketonuria
100. HELLP syndrome is the medical name given to a serious complication of Pre Eclampsia involving a combination of liver and blood disorders. HELLP stands for H (haemolysis - red blood cell damage); EL (elevated liver enzymes - indicating liver damage); and LP (low platelets in the blood leading to a bleeding tendency).
101. A haematocolpos is the accumulation of blood in the vagina. It usually presents
as increasing abdominal distention and monthly discomfort without bleeding.
102. A high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on Pap smear does not indicate cancer. It usually indicates what is called moderate or severe dysplasia.
103. hysterectomy
104. hysterosalpingography
105. hysteroscopy
106. hysterotomy
107. haematometra
108. hirsuitism
109. hydatidiform mole
110. hyperemesis gravidarum
111. induction of labour
112. infertility
113. infundibulopelvic ligament
114. intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR)
115. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
116. Involution
117. Kleihauer test
118. Labour
Accelerated phase
First stage
Latent phase

124.Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera.
125. Large loop excision of transformation zone (LLETZ)
126. Lecithin:sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio
127. Lightening
128. Linea nigra
129. Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL)
130. Lower uterine segment
131. Malpresentation
132. Manual removal of placenta (MROP)
133. Marginal sinus rupture
134. Maternal serum screening
135. Mechanism of labour
136. Meconium
137. Menopause
138. Monilial vaginitis
139. Moulding
140. Multigravida
141. Multipara
142. Myomectomy
143. Naegele's rule
144. Nuchal fold
145. Oligospermia
146. Occipitoposterior position (OP)
147 Occipitotransverse position (OT)
148. Occipitoanterior position (OA)
149. Oligohydramnios
150. Overactive bladder (OAB)
151. Ovulation induction
152. Oxytocin 218. Vasa praevia
153. Papanicolaou smear (Pap)
154. Parity 220. Virilism
155. Pelvimetry
156. Pelvis - android
157. - anthropoid
158. - gynaecoid
159. - platypelloid
160. - inlet
161. - midplane
162. - outlet
163. Placenta - accreta
164. - praevia
165. - perceta
166. - increta
167. Pearl index
168. Pelvic inflammatory disease
169. Perinatal morbidity
170. Perinatal mortality
171. Pessary - ring
172. Pfannenstiel incision
173 Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
174. Polyhydramnios
175. Position of fetus
176. Presentation of fetus
177. (Post coital) Emergency contraception
178. Posterior colpoperineorrhaphy
179. Postpartum haemorrhage - primary
180. - secondary
181. Pre-eclampsia
183. Pre-term rupture of membranes(PROM)
184. Pre-term pre-labour rupture of membranes (PPROM)
185. Premenstrualtension/ syndrome(PMT/PMS)
186. Prolapse
187. Puberty - delayed
188. - precocious
189. Rectocele
190. red degeneration
191. restitution of fetal head
192. retroversion of the uterus
193. rhesus isoimmunization
194. salpingectomy
195. salpingotomy
196. salpingostomy
197. schiller’s test
198. shoulder dystocia
199. sheehan’s syndrome
200. spalding’s sign
201. speculum- Bivalve, Cusco’s, Sim’s
202. Spinnbarkeit
203. Symphysiotomy
204. STOP Surgery Termination of Pregnancy
205. Tension free vaginal tape (TVT)
206. Thelarche/Menarche/Adrenarche
207. Transformation zone
208. Trichomonas vaginalis
209. Tumour markers- Ca 125, CEA, Inhibin
210. Turner’s syndrome
211. Urethrocele
212. Urinary incontinence- stress, urge, uterine inversion
213. uterus- large for dates, small for dates
214. uterosacral ligaments
215. vacuum extraction
216. vaginismus
217. vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC)
218. vasa praevia
219. vault granuloma
220. virilism